In the Vrahad Vishnu Puran under the heading of the Mithila Mahatmya in the Second Chapter, Shlok 20-21 it has been said ::  Mithila Tairbhuhischa Vaidehi Naimikananm Jnankhestra Kripapitha Swarn Langal Paddhatiah.
Janaki Janmbhumischa Nitpeksha Vikalmasha Ramanandkari Vishvabhavini Nityamangala.
Mithila. Tirbhukti, Vaidehi, Naimikanan, Jnanshila, Kripapeetha, Swarn Langal Paddhati, Janaki Janmbhumi, Vikalmasha, Ramanandkari, Vishvabhavini and Nityamangala are the 12 names of Mithila.
Mithila’s meaning :: “Antarvahyascha Sarvatra madhyante Ripavah sada Mithilanam Sajneya Janakasch kritamahi; Makaro Vishwakarta cha Thakarsthitipalakah Lakaro laykarta vai trimara Shaktyobhavan.”
Inside and outside, who churn out enemies always Mithila be understood that where Janaks were ruling the land.
‘Mi’s Makar signifies Founder of the world and ‘Thi’s Thakar signifies Who looks after ‘La’s Lakar signifies the Destroyer and Trimatra is for the Power.” Thakur stands for Bhagwan Vishnu-the nurturer. Destroyer is Bhagwan Mahesh-Shiv.
Meaning of Janak :: Enunciation (enunciator), to begin with. 
After 71 Chatur Yugi (4 cosmic era : Sat, Treta, Dwapar and Kali Yug) one Indr comes to throne who reins 3,67,20,000 human years. He is called Manu and Manvantar is the time frame. 14 Indr are coming to throne of heaven.
Those live very long are called Chiranjivi-immortals. At the present moment there are 8 Chiranjivis :: i.e., Ashwatthama, Bali,Vyas, Hanuman Ji, Vibhishan, Krapachary, Bhagwan Parshu Ram and Rishi Markandey.
During the 24th Chatur Yugi Brahm Ji asked Vashishth to go to Mratyu Bhuwan-Lok-abode-Prathvi-earth for becoming priest of Surya Vanshi Kings. Vashishth Ji protested that Purohitai-family priest hood is prohibited as a profession. Then Brahma Ji said that Bhagwan Vishnu Himself would take birth at that Surya Vanshi kings in Treta Yug. Vashishth Ji then said that he would go but with one exception.
Vashishth said,”You say Ramavatar will be in Treta. Now, Sat Yug is going on, then Dwapar will come and then  Treta will come. I cannot live for so long in Mratyu Bhuwan as: Sat Yug is of 17,28,000 years. Dwapar is of 12,96,000 years. Treta is of 8,64,000 years and Kali Yug is of 4,32,000 years. If you make Treta after Sat Yug, I may go.”
Brahma Ji accepted that and since then Treta is coming after Sat Yug. Before that 24 times Sat Yug was followed by Dwapar and then by Treta. On the acceptance by Brahma Ji, Vashishth came to Mratyu Bhuwan and became priest of Sury Vansh.
SURY VANSH :: The son of Sun was Manu, who had four sons :- (1). Ang, (2). Bang, (3). Nimi (Nimay) and (4). Awadh on whose names were named  Ang Desh, Bang Desh, Nepal Desh and Awadh.
After Sat Yug, came  Treta Yug when Bhagwan Ram was born but how he could marry Sita of his own Gotr  and Dynasty and hence, Brahma  had to make a way.
One day Brahma Ji distracted mind of Nimi who requested Vashishth to have a Yagy, so that he could reach Swarg-heaven with the body. Vashishth accepted his request and he went home. Nimay started arrangements for Yagy. Seers were invited. All except Vashishth was present on due time. A messenger was sent for him.
Vashishth became angry and said he had committed Indr before him for the Yagy and hence he was going to Indr.
Knowing that Nimay was in deep grief and proclaimed for the cancellation of Yagy. But all seers said that in the absence of  Vashishth, the Yagy be held with appointing Gautam as Achary.
Gautam started Yagy-sacrifice to fire. That time kings had the Gotr of Gurus and so now Nimay's Gotr-title-surname was changed  to Gautam from Vashishth  and Yagy Sankalp  was for 500 years. When Vashishth returned from Indra’s place, his son Shaktiji informed him the matter. Vashishth reached Nimay’s place and both had hot talks. Vashishth taking water in his hands gave curse, “Sadeh Videho Bhav”. Let your body fall and you become without a body.
Nimay-Nimi also cursed him. With the curse of Vashishth Nimay died. With the curse of Nimay Vashishth reached Varun’s place seeking life by “Par Kaya Pravesh”-entering into another man's body.
Varun listening to his prayer gave place to Vashishth’s soul in his heart and since then was known as Mitr Varun.
Once, Mitr Varun had sperm fall seeing the numph (-अप्सरा, सुर-सुन्दरी,  देवबाला) Urvashi. That sperm was kept in a Ghat. August was born to that  and hence he is called Ghat-Yoni utpann (-घट योनि उत्पन्न) .
Some sperm fell on the Lotus leaf from which Vashishth was born who is called a  Vaeshy Putr.
After the death of Nimay, he was asked  to remain as hair above the eyes (Eye-brows-the Nimi)  seers churned out  a son (Mathi Kaya) of his dead body who was hence, called Mithi.
Mithi established a good capital, which was named on him as Mithila Puri-Holy city of Mithila.
Being born of the body of father  he took title of Janak. Since that day whoever be the king was called Janak. Ksheer Dhwaj Janak, father of Mata Sita was the 21st king in Janak clan-hierarchy-lineage. 
In that Nimi’s Yagy 19 seers came from the different parts of the country who settled down in Mithila whose sons are called from that Gotr-linage.
Due to change of Gotr and  body Ram’s marriage could be held with Sita.
Raja Janak is well known through out India and abroad because of his being relinquished-detached and a virtuous king, who carefully nursed his citizens. He was called Videh-released as well.  Another reason, rather more important is his being the father of Maa Sita, an incarnation of Maa Laxmi and the queen of Ayodhya. The third reason is his conversation with Sage Ashtawakr Ji, after who's name the Treatise on Relinquishment called Ashtawakr Geeta has been written. He was the 21st king of the Janak dynasty which had its origin King Nimi followed by Mithi produced from his dead remains by the sages.His kingdom got the name Mithila after the emperor Mithi and there after it became known as Mithila Puri or Janak Puri. Puri is a sacred place for the Hindus.
Mithila (मिथिला) was capital of Videh kingdom is located in Janak Pur situated between foothills of Himalay of Nepal and the  Holy River Maa Ganga. This city is identified as modern day Janak Pur-Janak Pur Dham) in Dhanush district of Nepal. This region was also called Tairabhukti, the ancient name of Tirhut. The Videh or Mithila Kingdom is believed to be bounded on the north by the Himalay, on the south the Ganga, on the east the Kosi river and on the west the Gandak river. It was also the region where two most venerated names in the religious history of the world-Gautam Buddh ninth incarnation of Bhagwan Vishnu and Vardhman Mahavir, spent considerable time.
Ancestor of the first mythical King of this region was Nimi, who ruled in Saraswati river region. As per the mythological tales, Nimi died due to curse placed on him by his Guru-Sage Vashishth. After his death there was a period of anarchy. The sages then gathered and implored the spirit of Nimi to re assume human form. The dead body of Nimi was placed in a churn in hope that the dead body of Nimi would re assume human form. Sages succeeded in their effort and MITHI (means soil) emerged from churn.The tribe, initially ruled by Nimi, left the Saraswati region under the leadership of Mithi and after long period of wandering finally settled on the banks of Sad Nir, now identified as Gandak. Since, he was born out of body of his father, he was called JANAK. After this, the Kings of Mithila were called Janak. The most famous Janak was Ksheer Dhwaj Janak, father of Sita-21st king. There were 52 kings in the dynasty of Videh Janak. 
The region was originally known as Videh. The kingdom of Videh is mentioned for the first time in Yajur Ved Sanhita. Mithila, the capital of Videh is mentioned in Buddhist Jataks, the Brahmns the Purans (described in detail in Brahad Vishnu Puran and various epics such as Ramayan and Mahabharat. A list of Kings is mentioned in Mahabharata and Jataks. All the kings we known as Videh or Janak. 
LINEAGE OF JANAKS :: Janaks who ruled Mithila till Ramayan as mentioned in Valmiki Ramayan was described to King Dashrath-the father of Bhagwan Ram by King Kshir Dhwaj Janak. The virtuous king Nimi was son of King Ikshwaku and grandson of Manu. Nimesh-the time taken by the blink of an eye, is known as Nimesh after the name of King Nimi.  Mithi  was the founder of Mithila and the first Janak. Other rulars were :: Udavasu, Nandivardhana, Suketu, Devarata, Brihadratha, Mahavira, Sudhriti, Dristaketu, Haryasva, Maru, Pratindhaka, Kirtiratha, Devamidha, Vibudha, Mahidhrika, Kirtirata, Maharoma, Swarnaroma, Hrasvaroma, Seeradhwaja - Father of Sita.
Janaks after Ramayan :: Bhaanumaan, Shatadyumn, Shuchi, Oorjnaamaa, Kriti, Anjan, Kurujit, Arishtnemi, Shrutaayu, Supaarshwa, Srinjaya, Kshemaavee, Anenaa, Bhaumarath, Satyarath, Upagu, Upagupt, Swaagat, Swaanand, Suvarchaa, Supaarshwa, Subhaash, Sushrut, Jaya, Vijaya, Rit, Sunaya, Veetahavya, Dhriti, Bahulaashwa, Kriti
Mithila after Janaks :: Kirti Janak, the last King of Janak Dynasty, was atrocious ruler who lost control over his subjects. He was dethroned by public under leadership of various Achary (-scholars, Learned Men). During this period of fall of Mithila empire, the famous republic of Lichchhvi was rising in Vaishali and Mithila region came under control of Lichchhvi in around seventh century BC. In the 6th century BC, Lichchhvi were defeated by Ajat Shatru of the Haryank dynasty and ruler of Magdh and thus Mithila region came under control of Magdh empire. Thereafter, several dynasties such as Shishu Nag, Nand, Maury, Shung, Kant, Gupt, Vardhan etc. ruled there from time to time. There was no significant ruler in Mithila after Janaks till 5th-6th century when Jaywardhan Raja Salhesh became King. He made his capital at Mahisautha-Sirha (now in Nepal). He defended the region against attacks by Tibetans several times. Hence, he was called Shailesh (king of Mountains) from Jaywardhan which in local dialect was called Salhesh.
PAL DYNASTY (6th-9th century) :: Mithila was ruled by Pal Dynasty of Gaud of Bengal for almost three centuries. Pal Dynasty were followers of Buddhism and according to some texts they were Kayasth. Their capital is believed to be located at present town of Bali Raj Garh (Babubarhi-Madhubani district). The last king of Pal Dynasty was Madan Pal. Madan Pal was a weak king, as he was defeated by Adishur Samant Sen’s army.
The main rulers of Pal Dynasty :: Gopal (750-770), Dharm Pal (770-810), Dev Pal (810-850), Shur Pal-Mahendra Pal (850 - 854), Vigrah Pal (854-855), Narayan Pal (855-908), Rajy Pal (908-940), Gopal II (940-960), Vigrah Pal II (960-988), Mahi Pal (988-1038), Nay Pal (1038–1055), Vigrah Pal III (1055–1070), Mahi Pal II (1070–1075), Shur Pal II (1075–1077), Ram Pal (1077–1130), Kumar Pal of Bengal (1130–1140), Gopal III (1140–1144), Madan Pal (1144–1162), Govind Pal (1162–1174)
The founder of the Pal Empire was Gopal. He was the first independent Buddhist king of Bengal and came to power in 750 in Gaur by democratic election, which was unique at the time. He reigned from (750-770) and consolidated his position by extending his control over all of Bengal. His successors Dharm Pal (770-810) and Dev Pal (810-850) expanded the empire across the northern and eastern Indian subcontinent. The Pal Empire eventually disintegrated in the 12th
SEN DYNASTY (9th-11th century) :: Sen Dynasty were followers of Hinduism (Gaud Kayasthas) and hence people of Mithila, being followers of Hinduism, helped Samant Sen in defeating Madan Pal. Eminent scholar Vachaspati Mishr who hailed from the village Thardhi in Madhubani district, was from this period. Sen Dynasty had five kings :- Hemanta Sen (1070 AD), Vijay Sen (1096-1159 AD), Ballal Sen (1159-1179 AD), Lakshman Sen (1179-1206 AD), Vishvarup Sen (1206-1225 AD), Keshab Sen (1225-1230 AD)
KARNATAK DYNASTY (11th-14th century) :: The main influences on Nepal came from Mithila or Tirhut to the South. This area came intermittently under the domination of warriors allied to the Chaluky dynasty from Karnatak in southern India. One of their lieutenants, Nany Dev defeated the last King of Sen Dynasty, Laxman Sen and became King of Mithila in 1097 CE. Nany Dev had come from west and had his first capital at Simraon Garh (Birganj) in the Terai. From there, the king launched raids that allowed the Chalukyas to later claim domination over Nepal. King Nany Dev attacked Kathmandu valley and annexed it to his large kingdom. The people who had come with the king settled down in the valley. Someswar Dev, a Chalukyan name, was the Nepal king from 1178-1185 CE indicating this influence. After conquering entire Mithila, Nany Dev shifted his capital to Kamaladitya Sthan (Kamladan). Another village named Andharatharhi village in Madhubani district is also mentioned to be capital of Karnataks. In the said village, there are six dozen ponds of which 27 ponds constitute the beads of a picturesque garland. The ponds are interconnected amongest themselves and also with the Sugarwe river for smooth recharging with the flood water. These ponds constructed by Karnatak Kings constitute a unique irrigation system and is proving its relevance even today, spanning over eight centuries. Karnatak Dynasty also had five kings.
Nany Dev, apart from being a great warrior, also had keen interest in music. He classified and analyzed the Rags and opines Madhy Lay is chosen for Hasy (humorous) and Shrangar (libido) Ras, Bilambit is chosen for Karun (compassion) Ras and Dhrut is chosen for Veer (brave), Rodr (anger), Adbhut (marvelous) and Bhayanak (fearful) Ras. He wrote a treaty on music 'Saraswati Hradayalankar which is preserved in the Bhandarkar Research Institute of Pune. Nany Dev is also considered to be the forgotten King of Mithila. He was followed by :- Gang Dev, Narsinh Dev, Shakrasinh Dev and Hari Sinha Dev.
King Hari Singh Dev is the most famous. He was instrumental in initiating and implementing Panji Vyavastha or Panji Prabandh in Maethil Brahmns (मैथिल ब्राह्मण) and Maethil Kayasth (मैथिल और कर्ण कायस्थ, Karn Kayasth).  He was also great patron of art and literature. Kayasth is a mixed breed which sprung up by the combination of Brahmn father and Shudr mother. This breed has a sharp brain and it masters various arts like dance and music.
In the court of Hari Sinha Dev the Royal Priest was Jyotirishwar, the author of Varn Ratnakar. Upon Ghyasuddin Tughlak's invasion of Mithila (Tirhut) in 1326 CE, King Hari Singh Dev, along with many Maethil Brahmns, fled to Nepal and founded a new dynasty in Nepal. Karnatak samvat (-संवत), one of the calendars in use in Mithila. was brought about by the influence of Karnatak dynasty.
OINWAR DYNASTY 1326 AD to 1526 AD) :: In 1326, Ghyasuddin Tughlak attacked and conquered Mithila region. The last king of Karnatak Dynasty Hari Singh Dev fled to Nepal. Anarchy prevailed in Mithila region for next 27 years. In 1353 Firoz Shah Tughlak appointed Pt. Kameshwar Thakur as Karad Raja (Tax Paying King-they were appointed as Kings by Emperors and had to collect and pay taxes and to maintain army for the Emperor). Kameshwar Thakur belonged to village named Oini, which is now in Samastipur District. The dynasty was named after the village Oini as Oinwar Dynasty. Kameshwar Thakur, being of scholarly nature, was unable to collect and pay tax to Firoz Shah Tughlak. Thus, Kameshwar Thakur was dethroned and his son, Bhogishwar Thakur was made next King of Mithila region. This dynasty was one of the few ruling dynasties of India who were Brahmns. Thereafter, the Mithila region had Kings from Brahmn caste only. Those who followed were :- Jay Pati Thakur, Hingu Thakur, a great scholar and ascetic. Once served Karnatak kings and he was granted the village Oini in Muzaffar Pur district, Om Nath Thakur, Ati Rupa Thakur Vishw Rup Thakur, Govinda Thakur, Lakshman Thakur, Kameshwar Thakur.
Bhogishwar Thakur :- Kameshwar Thakur did not prove to be able ruler and was unable to collect and pay tax to Firoz Shah Tughlak. Thus, Firoz Shah Tughlak dethroned him and made Bhogishwar Thakur the King in place of Kameshwar Thakur. Bhogishwar Thakur was son of Kameshwar Thakur.
Ganeshwar Singh - Ganeshwar Singh became king after death of his father Bhogishwar Thakur. He was mortally stabbed by a person named Aslan in 1361 AD in a conspiracy to usurp the throne. Aslan wanted to kill his two sons-Vir Singh and Kirti Singh as well, but did not succeed since they had been safely hidden somewhere.
Kirti Singh - Kirti Singh enlisted help of Tughlaks, who send his army to recapture Mithila. In the battle that ensued, Aslan and Vir Singh were killed. Kirti Singh became King but died after shortly thereafter.
Bhavesh Thakur (also known as Bhav Singh) – He was younger son of Kameshwar Thakur. Since Kirti Singh died issue less, the kingdom passed over to Bhavesh Thakur.
Dev Singh
Shiv Singh :- He declared himself to be independent King and stopped paying taxes to Tughlak empire. Due to his decision to challenge authority of Tughlaks empire, Ibrahim Shah Tughlak attacked Mithila. In the battle, Shiv Singh was killed.
Padm Singh :- He was younger brother of Shiv Singh.
Queen Bishwas Devi :- Padm Singh died issue less at an early age. After his death, his wife Queen Bishwas Devi ruled Mithila region, but she too died soon after taking over reign of Mithila.
Hari Singh :- He was cousin of Padm Singh. Since Padm Singh died issue less, the throne passed to Hari Singh. Nar Singh, Dhir Singh (ruled 1459-1480)
Bhairav Singh (ruled 1480-1515). He was a very popular king and initiated several development works like digging of ponds construction of roads, wells, temples, etc. He was a great patron of art and culture as well.
Ram Bhadra Singh Dev.
Laxmi Nath Singh Dev :- He was the last King of Oinwar dynasty. Sikandar Lodhi attacked Mithila region in 1526 and Maharaj Laxmi Nath Singh Dev was killed in the ensuing battle.
PERIOD OF ANARCHY (1526 to 1577) :: 
Sikandar Lodhi made his son-in-law, Alauddin, the ruler of this area. During this period, Mogul Empire was beginning to take its root in Delhi. Alauddin was not a successful ruler and for next 50 years, anarchy prevailed in Mithila region. When Akbar became emperor, he tried to bring normalcy to Mithila region. He came to the conclusion that only after a Maethil Brahmn was made King, peace could prevail and rent could be collected in Mithila. In 1577, Emperor Akbar declared Pt. Mahesh Thakur as the ruler of Mithila. Pt. Mahesh Thakur belonged to Mool Kharaur Bhaur and hence that dynasty was called ‘Khandwal Kul (-खण्डवाल कुल)’ and the capital was made at Raj Gram in Madhubani District.
KHANDWAL DYNASTY (1577-1947) :: 
Maharajah Sir Lakhmishwar Singh, G.C.I.E., of Darbhanga, who was only in his forty-third year at the time of his death in 1898, was in every sense the best type of the Indian nobleman and landlord. He was the leading zemindar in Behar, where he owned no less than 2,152 square miles (5,570 km2) with a net yearly rental of 30 lakhs, and was the recognized head of the orthodox Hindu community. His philanthropy and his munificent contributions to all public movement won him the esteem of all classes and creeds. He took an active part in public life and enjoyed a high reputation as a progressive and liberal minded statesman. With but slight interruptions he was a member of the Supreme Legislative Council from the year 1883 until his death, and latterly he sat in that body as the elected representative of the non-official members of the Bengal Council. Few Asiatics have combined more successfully in themselves the apparently incompatible characteristics of East and West.

Raja Mahesh Thakur (expired 1558).
Raja Gopal Thakur He was eldest Son of Raja Mahesh Thakur. He died suddenly and was king for a very small period only.
Raja Parmanand Thakur He was second son of Raja Mahesh Thakur. He too ruled for a brief period before his death.
Raja Subhankar Thakur (expired 1607). He was fifth son of Raja Mahesh Thakur. He was a great patron of music and art. He wrote a treatise on music Shri Hast Muktavali that deals with a companion art of dance.
Raja Purushottam Thakur (1607-1623)
Raja Narayan Thakur (1623-1642)
Raja Sundar Thakur (1642-1662)
Raja Mahi Nath Thakur 1662-1684)
Raja Nirpat Thakur (1684-1700). He shifted his capital to Darbhanga from Raj Gram. Darbhanga remained their seat of power till independence of India.
Raja Raghu Singh (1700-1736)
Raja Bishnu Singh (1736-1740)
Raja Mithilesh Narendra Singh (1740-1760 AD) :- In 1753 AD, he won the Famous Battle of Mithila known as Battle of Kandarpi-Ghat, Harina. This great victory is Known as Mithila Vijay-Victory of Mithila. The battle took place between the armies of The King (Mithilesh) Narendra Singh & Aliwardi Khan-Mughal-emperor's Agent. The war was horrible. He was a great devotee of Maa Kali. Just after his victory, Mithilesh-Narendra Singh Built Maa Kali's Glorious Temple at that Ran Bhumi Battle Place in Harin Village near Jhanjhar Pur; which is named as Narendra Vijay Kali Mandir situated on the left bank of the river Kamal Balan at Harin and Mithila Vijay Stambh  is situated at Kandarpi-Ghat, Harin. 
Raja Pratap Singh (1760-1776)
Raja Madho Singh (1776-1808)
Maharaja Chhatr Singh Bahadur (1808-1839)
Maharaja Rudra Singh Bahadur (1839-1850)
Maharaja Maheshwar Singh Bahadur (1850-1860)
Maharaja Lakshmeshwar Singh Bahadur (1860-1898)
Maharaja Rameshwar Singh Bahadur (1898-1929)
Maharaja Kameshwar Singh Bahadur (1929-1947, i.e., till independence of India on 15 August, 1947 when all the kingdoms merged with Union of India).


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