By :: Pt. Santosh Bhardwaj
The civilised society, living world follows some life styles, principles, tenets, way of living and means of livelihood, which are conceptualised as Philosophy. It is the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality and existence, especially when considered as an academic discipline.
The barbarians, people living in far away places in deep woods, native tribes are generally cut off from the developed world. Generally, one do not expect them to have any morals, cultures, values. principles. Still traditions, rituals, mores constitute their interaction within the group or the other tribes living around.
In other words philosophy is a theory or attitude that acts as a guiding principle for human behaviour, interaction in the society.
Various terms like beliefs, credo, faith, convictions, ideology, ideas, thinking, notions, theories, doctrine, tenets, values, principles, ethics, attitude, line, view, viewpoint, outlook, world view, school of thought etc. are used to describe it. Normally, they are called ISM. Its described as religions like Jainism Buddhism, Sikhism as well.
Sect may be termed as another for a group of people following certain faith.
Every philosophy has one or the other value attached with it.
IDEALISM आदर्शवाद :: It deals with the highest standards of morals, values in life. One is supposed to learn and accept to follow the great saints, preachers who serve the community without any desire. They do not need any thing in return, appreciation, honour, name fame or wealth. Their motive is selfless service of the man kind-humanity. A Hindu considers Bhagwan Shri Ram as an ideal. Such people are termed as Purushottm-greatest amongest the humans. 
It deals with high moral values, ethics, standards like truthfulness, virtuousness, piousity, righteousness, honesty, austerities, donations, welfare of others, sacrifices.
The idealist always crave for salvation, liberation, assimilation in the Almighty so that reincarnation-rebirth is not there.
REALISM :: It was not a coherent school of thought, in the study of international relations which emerged during the mid 20th century. It stressed over the perennial role of power and self interest in determining state behaviour, which was inspired by wide variety of sources and offered competing visions of the self, the state and the military power in world politics. There is an attempt to offer most accurate explanation of state behaviour and a set of policy prescriptions (notably the balance of power between states) for ameliorating the inherent destabilising elements of international affairs & focuses on abiding patterns of interaction in an international system lacking a centralised political authority. The condition of anarchy exists behind the logic of international politics, which often differ from that of domestic politics, being regulated by a sovereign power. Its followers are generally pessimistic about the possibility of radical systemic reform. It was adopted  by Americans & the British, who do not mind interfering with the sovereignty of state world over. The practice still continues and countries like Russia, China, Pakistan are not far behind.
It includes elements of pragmatism, practicality, facts, common sense, level headedness, clear sightedness, authenticity, fidelity, verisimilitude, truthfulness, faithfulness, naturalism.
One should accept the existence of others and respect it. A state of neutrality is essential for growth.
What is real today may not be there tomorrow! The world appears to be a reality at this moment but the next moment it be wiped off completely. Politics never survives without diplomacy, shrewdness sometimes cunningness as well.
There is always room for cordial relations, negotiations, mutual understanding, compromise, cooperation. Those who understand reality are always willing to adjust with others.
PRAGMATISM :: It originated in the United States around 1870. Usually it considers the practical effects of the objects of one's conception, as an instrument or tool for prediction, problem solving and action, and rejects the idea that the function of thought is to describe, represent, or mirror reality. It include logic of science, fixation of belief and as a tool to make ideas clear. Knowledge, language, concepts, meaning, belief and science are all best viewed in terms of their practical uses and successes in human experiences. It focuses on a changing universe rather than an unchanging one as the Idealists & the Realists.
One is pragmatic if he realises the worth of a good or an idea and put it to its best possible use.
MATERIALISM :: It reflects the tendency to consider material possessions and physical comfort as more important than spiritual values. One just believe in eat drink and be merry. Ethics, values, religion are not important for the materialist. The faith generally do not care for life after death or rebirth. The impact of deeds may be meaningless for him.
CAPITALISM :: Unless until one has right to own property, material goods, worldly possessions, growth is not possible. Money is essential for this. It involves banking system, investors, general public, buyers and sellers, factories, market places and the agriculture-farming community. It involves economic theories, financial instruments, brokers etc. None of the theories is capable of defining consumer behaviour, since it discards mood, psychology human behaviour. Corruption, greed, boundaries, internal interests, colonial interests are other ingredients which affect capitalism. Political stability is essential.
COMMUNISM :: It advocated the state ownership of all property. In reality it opposed capitalism. Its roots lies in India, where Marx could not understand the title deeds of property of farmers, cultivators to be owning to the kingdom. This system has failed all over the world. It led to the brutal murder of billions of innocent people, acquisition of their property, low moral values, corruption and amassing huge wealth by the dominant people in power. Its still present for the namesake in Russia, North Korea & China. In China and Russia the person in presidential posts wish to die as president and dominate circles of power. There is no freedom of speech or writing in China and Korea. As soon as one open his mouth against the people in power or write some thing them, he meet  a torturous end. Its various forms include Maoism, Marxism, Leninism, socialism. In India it exists as Samajwadi Parties, the heads of which have mercilessly looted state and private properties of innocent people.
CONFUCIANISM :: Its also known as Ruism, is a tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life. Chinese philosopher Confucius propounded this school of thought. It was rather a reaction to Buddhism and Taoism (traditional nature worship). It stresses over family and social harmony, rather than on an otherworldly source of spiritual values. It has something in common with humanistic behaviour of Brahmns (piousness, absolute faith in God, non accumulation, subsistence), rituals, temples prevalent in India in ancient times. 
SOLIPSISM :: It revolves around the idea that there is nothing one can confirm except his own existence. If one think about the brain’s capacity for hallucination and just good for dreaming, it’s not that hard to imagine outside manipulation being possible as well.
NEO HINDUISM :: It do not recognise the power of any one to expel some one from Hinduism. It permits followers of all faith to worship God just like the devout Hindus.It grants them rights to enter the temples, following certain norms laid down for purity before approaching the idols like bathing, changing cloths, removing shoes, cleaning mouth and washing hands etc. It allows the converts (Muslims & Christians) to rejoin the main stream. It do not press any one to pray before the idols. One may remember the God while travelling or sitting alone. One may pray before all deities, a single deity. There is no compulsion over reading scriptures or listening t the sermons, lectures, lessons pertaining to the God. Just chanting Om, Ram-Ram, Hare Ram Hare Krashn, Hey Ram, Om Namh Shivay is sufficient. 
Other cults :: Ableism, Absolutism, Absurdism, Acquiescence, Activism, Actual Idealism, Actualism, Advaet Vedant, Aesthetic Realism, Aesthetics, African philosophy, Agential realism, Agnosticism, Agnotology, Altruism, Amorfati, American philosophy, Animism, Anti imperialism, Anti-psychiatry, Antinatalism, Anti intellectualism, Anti realism, Anti reductionism, Analytic philosophy, Anarchism, Ancient philosophy, Anthropocentrism, Anomalous monism, Applied ethics, Aristotelianism, Asceticism, Atavism, Atheism, Authoritarianism, Autodidacticism, Averroism, Avicennism, Axiology, Bathism, Bahai's teachings, Behaviourism, Biblical literalism, Bioconservatism, Bioethics, Biolibertarianism, Biosophy, Buddhist philosophy, Bushido, Business ethics, Calvinism, Capitalism, Cartesianism, Catechism, Categorical imperative, Centrism, Chaos theory, Charvak, Chauvinism, Chinese naturalism, Chinese philosophy, Christian ecology, Christian existentialism, Christian humanism, Christian philosophy, Christian theology, Christology, Classical liberalism, Collectivism, Cogito ergo sum, Cognitive biases, Cognitivism, Communitarianism, Compatibilism and incompatibilism, Computer ethics, Confirmation holism, Conformism, Confucianism, Consequentialism, Conservatism Constructivist epistemology, Continental philosophy, Continuationism, Cosmopolitanism, Creationism, Critical rationalism, Critical realism, Cultural relativism, Cynicism, Czech philosophy, Danish philosophy, Daoism, Darwinism, Deconstruction, Deductive reasoning, Deism, Defeatism, Democratic transhumanism, Denialism, Deontology Determinism, Dialectic, Dialectical materialism, Didacticism, Digital philosophy, Discordianism, Dogma, Dualistic cosmology, Dvaita, Ecocentrism, Ecumenism, Egalitarianism, Egocentrism, Eliminative materialism, Empiricism, Environmentalism, Ephesian school, Epiphenomenalism, Epicureanism, Epistemological nihilism, Epistemology, Erudition, Eschatology, Esotericism, Ethical Egoism, Ethics, Eudaimonism, Eugenics, Evangelism, Existentialism, Externalism, Fallacy, Fanaticism,  Fascism, Feminism, Feminist philosophy, Feng shui, Filial piety, Flower Sermon, Foundationalism, Freemasonry, Free will, Fundamentalism, German idealism, German philosophy, Globalism, Gnosticism, Gothicismus, Greek philosophy, Hasidism, Hedonism, Hegelian synthesis, Hegelianism, Hermeneutics, Hermeticism, Heterophenomenology, Hindu philosophy, Hinduism, Hindutv, Shaevism, Vaeshnavism, Lingayat, Historical materialism, Historical revisionism, Historicism, Holism, Hongaku, Human exceptionalism, Humanism, Humanistic naturalism, Idealism, Identityism, Ideological criticism, Ignosticism, Illegalism, Illuminationism, Incontinence, Individualism, Indian logic, Indian philosophy, Indonesian philosophy, Induction, Inductionism, Informal logic, Innatism, Instrumental rationality, Instrumentalism, Integrity, Interactionism (philosophy of mind), Internalism and externalism, Interventionism, Intuitionism, Iranian philosophy, Irrealism, Islamic ethics, Islamic philosophy, Jainism, Jingoism, Japanese philosophy, Jesuism, Jewish philosophy, Juche, Judaism, Judeo, Islamism, Just war theory, Kaizen, Kantianism, Kashmir Shaevism, Korean philosophy, Leaderless resistance, Legalism, Leibnizianism, Liberalism, Libertarianism (metaphysics), Libertarianism, Literary criticism, Literary theory, Logic, Informal logic, Logical atomism, Logical positivism, Logicians, Logicism, Logic in China, Logic in Islamic philosophy, Lutheranism, Machiavellianism,Manichaeism, Maoism, Marxism, Marxist philosophy of nature, Materialism, Mathematicism, Mazdakism, Medical ethics, Medieval philosophy, Medievalism, Mentalism, Mereological nihilism, Meta philosophy, Metaphysics, Meta ethics, Methodism, Mind body dualism, Misanthropy, Misology, Modernism, Modern Islamic philosophy, Mohism, Monogamy, Monotheism, Moral absolutism, Moral realism, Moral relativism, Moral skepticism, Multilateralism, Mysticism, Naive realism, Naturalism, Tionism, Neo Confucianism, Neo Hegelianism, Neo Kantianism, Neoplatonism, Neo pythagoreanism, Neo Scholasticism, Neotaoism, Neuroethics, Neurophilosophy, Neurotheology, New Age, New realism, New Thought, New World Order (conspiracy theory), Neutral monism, Nihilism, Nominalism, Nondualism, Non philosophy, Objective idealism, Objectivism (Ayn Rand), Occam's razor, Occasionalism, Ontology, Ontotheology, Open individualism, Opportunism, Optimism, Organicism, Orientalism, Pacifism, Paganism, Pain (philosophy), Pakistani philosophy, Pancritical rationalism, Pandeism, Panentheism, Panpsychism, Pantheism, Paradigm, Pastafarianism, Pataphysics, Patriotism, Pay it forward, Perennial philosophy, Perfectionism, Peripatetic, Personalism, Perspectivism, Pessimism, Phenomenalism, Phenomenology, Philosophical anthropology, Philosophical Satanism, Philosophy of archaeology, Philosophy of art, Philosophy of Arithmetic, Philosophy of artificial intelligence, Philosophy of action, Philosophy of biology, Philosophy of business, Philosophy of Common Sense, Philosophy of culture, Philosophy of colour, Philosophy of Chance, Philosophy of design, Philosophy of dialogue, Philosophy of eating, Philosophy of economics, Philosophy of education, Philosophy of engineering, Philosophy of environment, Philosophy of film, Philosophy of futility, Philosophy of geography, Philosophy of healthcare, Philosophy of history, Philosophy of information, Philosophy of language, Philosophy of logic, Philosophy of love, Philosophy of mathematics, Philosophy of mathematics education, Philosophy of mind, Philosophy of motion, Philosophy of music, Philosophy of nature, Philosophy of Natural Science, Philosophy of neuroscience, Philosophy of perception, Philosophy of philosophy, Philosophy of physics, Philosophy of psychology, Philosophy of psychiatry, Philosophy of religion, Philosophy of religious language, Philosophy of science, Philosophy of sex, Philosophy of self, Philosophy of social science, Philosophy of space and time, Philosophy of sport, Philosophy of statistics, Philosophy of thermal and statistical physics, Philosophy of war, Physicalism, Physical ontology, Platonic realism, Platonism, Pluralism, Political philosophy, Polygamy, Populism, Positivism, Postanalytic philosophy, Post structuralism, Posthumanism, Post materialism, Post, modernism, Practical reason, Pragmatism, Praxis School, Premillennialism, Presentism, Process philosophy, Progressivism, Property dualism, Proselytism, Pseudo philosophy, Psychological egoism, Pure practical reason, Pure reason, Pyrrhonian skepticism, Pythagoreanism, Quantum mysticism, Quietism, Racism, Raelism, Rastafari, Rationalism, Realism, Reconstructivism, Reductionism, Reductive materialism, Reformational philosophy, Reification, Relationalism, Relativism, Relevance logic, Religious humanism, Religious philosophy, Reliabilism, Renaissance humanism, Romanian philosophy, Romanticism, Russian philosophy, Sabellianism, Scandal, Scholasticism, Scientific Development Concept, Scientism, Secret society, Secularism, Secular humanism, Semantic holism, Sensualism, Sexualism, Sexism, Shamanism, Sikhism, Simulism, Singularitarianism, Skepticism, Social business, Social philosophy, Solipsism, Sophism, Spiritualism, Stoicism, Structuralism, Subjective idealism, Subjectivism, Sufi metaphysics, Sunyata, Super sessionism, Supervenience, Surrealism, Survivalism, Synoptic philosophy, Systems philosophy, Taoism, Tautology, Teleology, Tetralemma, Theism, Thelema, Theology, Theosophy, Traditionalist School, Transcendent theosophy (al Hikmat al Muta’liyah), Transcendental idealism, Transcendentalism, Transcendental perspectivism, Transhumanism, Trans modernism, Type physicalism, Unilateralism, Universalism, Universal reconciliation, Utilitarian bioethics, Utilitarianism, Utopianism, Value judgement, Value pluralism, Value theory, Verificationism, Victorian morality, Vienna Circle, Virtue ethics, Vishisht Advaet, Vitalism, Voluntaryism, Wahdat, ul Wujood, Wahdat ul Shuhud, Western philosophy, Wiccan, Zen, Zoroastrianism, Zurvanism etc. 
HINDU PHILOSOPHY हिंदु दर्शन  (CHAPTER 1-11)


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