AYUR VED CHAPTER (10, 11) :: FUME-SMOKE THERAPY धूम्र चिकित्सा ;CHARAK SANHITA चरक संहिता

AYURVED
CONCEPTS & EXTRACTS IN HINDUISM 
By :: Pt. Santosh Bhardwaj
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(10) आयुर्वेद FUME-SMOKE THERAPY धूम्र चिकित्सा :: There are several therapies prevailing to cure diseases, illness, physical and mental defects like Allopathi, Yunnani, acupressure, Ayur Ved etc., pertaining to human body. The human body has a store house of genes located over the chromosomes, which control various malfunctions in the body. Hunger, thirst, love, physical & mental actions, feelings-passions are all the sum total of the interaction of genes. Genes are in fact chemicals of specific composition, which may be altered. Breathing-respiration takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide along with several waste-useless gases. When one sucks air into the lungs smoke, dust particles, germs, virus, bacteria pathogens may enter the lungs and there after mixed with the blood and carried over to the whole body and result in one or the other kind of disease. The ductless glands too are simultaneously, giving rise to desired healing effect-results.
Fume-smoke therapy involves generation of fumes from herbs by using sacrificial offerings in the sacred fire through Yagy-Hawan-Agni Hotr.
The place where Yagy-Hawan is performed is normally covered from all sides and has a roof as well. In ancient India normally temples or the cottages with thatched roof were utilized for such purposes. Temples have very narrow opening for the air to pass and have thick walls, which maintain the inside temperature. Some of the sites are built in the basements called Garbh Grah or Tahkhana. This was to ensure that the fumes remained inside for a longer period of time. The smell remains in the air and keep one's body charged with the medication. The ashes too have medicinal powers and are pasted over the forehead. some times people swallow them with water or just lick it.
A Kalash-a special pot is filled with water from pious rivers and is kept at the place of offerings. 
The therapy involves inhaling of fumes-smoke evolved by the burning of various herbs-ingredients in extremely low quantities. The process involves Hawan, Agni Hotr or sacrifices in holy fire. Fire is evolved by burning of specific wood called Samidha. Each and every kind of wood obtained from different tree, shrub, wine-crippler, twine, plant has a store house of chemicals-medicinal properties. Indian experts called Rishis identified these characters and listed them according to their capability to cure a certain mal function-defect-disease. The manner in which the basis of all life is greenery-vegetation-plantation, in the same way the basis of all therapies in medicine, is plantation.
The fumes which evolve by way of offerings in the Hawan Kund are sucked by the lungs which generate immunity towards a large number of diseases in the body. A short cut is available in the form of Dhoop Batti or Agar Batti-incense sticks. Both of these have several ingredients in the form of powdered Ayur Vedic Herbs-medicines. Google and Pure Deshi Ghee forms the basic components. Cow's Ghee is preferred.
During the process of Hawan-Agni Hotr sacred rhymes are chanted which have miraculous impact over the diseased. Fumes associated with pious fumes repair the body from within.
Most common Samidha-wood for generating fire, constitutes of Mango, Peepal, Vat Vraksh, Shami, Sandal wood, Dev Daru, Agar, Tigar, Bilv. Samidha is chopped according to the shape size of the Hawan Kund.
Shape, size, design of the Hawan Kund-pot for generating fire is equally important. Its devised according to the event, purpose, manner, period, function and the number of the devotees ready to make offerings. etc.
Dry fruits, barley, sesame seeds, gram, Betalnut-areca nut, constitute the normal offerings.
Final offering-Charu constitutes of opium seeds, rice, wheat, sugar, honey, along with herbs chosen according to the treatment to be given to the patient and a dry coconut. Sweets, Kheer, Halwa too are offered in the last stage of the Yagy-rite. 
Common herbs used are Tulsi-Basil तुलसी, Sarp Gandha सर्पगन्धा, Brahmi ब्राह्मी, Shankh Pushpi शंखपुष्पी, Shatawari शतावरी, Somvalli सोमवल्ली, Jatamansi जटामांसी, Ashtvarg अष्टवर्ग etc. For more details one may refer the articles over :: santoshkipathshala.blogspot.com having the names of a large number useful herbs.
Offerings are made in a controlled manner so that smoke is not produced in large quantum. Ghee is offered repeatedly as per the recitation of the rhyme. The offering is just enough to stay over the Sun finger.
The Mantr normally enchanted is Maha Mratunjay Mantr.
(1). Om Mratunjayay Maha Devay Namostute. ॐ मृतुंज्याय महादेवाय नमोस्तुते।    
(2). त्र्यम्बकं यजामहे सुगंधिं पुष्टिवर्धनम्।उर्वारुकमिव बन्धनान्मृत्योर्मुक्षिय माऽमृतात्॥
OM Tryamb Kam Yjamahe Sugandhim Pushti Vardhnam;
Urvaruk Miv Bandhnan Mratyor Mukshiy Mamr Tat.
For more Mantr please refer to :: 
MANTROPCHAR-DIVINE REMEDIES मंत्रोपचार  :: santoshkipathshala.blogspot.com  
AYUR VED CHAPTER (11)  CHARAK SANHITA :: चरक संहिता जगत के पालन हार भगवान् विष्णु समुन्द्र मन्थन के परिणाम स्वरूप हाथ में अमृत कलश लेकर धन्वन्तरि के रूप में प्रकट हुए। उन्हें आयुर्वेद का मूल-प्रतिपादक माना जाता है। पुराणों में आयुर्वेद का विस्तृत वर्णन है। इस चिकित्सा पध्यति के अनेकानेक विद्वानों में चरक, शुश्रुत प्रमुख हैं। 
Photoचरक वे चिकित्‍सक थे, जिन्‍होंने पाचन, चयापचय और शरीर प्रतिरक्षा की अवधारणा दुनिया के सामने रखी। चरक का यह मानना था कि चिकित्‍सक अपने ज्ञान और समझ का दीप लेकर पहले रोगी के शरीर और मन स्थिति को समझे। उसे उन सब कारणों का अध्‍ययन करना चाहिए, जो कि रोगी को प्रभावित करते हैं। तत्‍पश्‍चात उसका उपचार किया जाना चाहिए।
उन्‍होंने बताया कि शरीर के कार्य के कारण उसमें तीन स्‍थायी दोष पाए जाते हैं, जिन्‍हें पित्‍त, कफ और वायु के नाम से जाना जाता है। ये तीनों दोष शरीर में जब तक संतुलित अवस्‍था में रहते हैं, व्‍यक्ति स्‍वस्‍थ रहता है। लेकिन जैसे ही इनका संतुलन बिगड़ जाता है, व्‍यक्ति बीमार हो जाता है। इसलिए शरीर को स्‍वस्‍थ करने के लिए इस असंतुलन को पहचानना और उसे फिर से पूर्व की अवस्‍था में लाना आवश्‍यक होता है।
Photoभारतवर्ष ही नहीं बल्कि सम्‍पूर्ण विश्‍व में चरक एक महर्षि एवं आयुर्वेद विशारद के रूप में जाने जाते हैं। उन्‍होंने आयुर्वेद के प्रमुख ग्रन्‍थ ‘चरक संहिता’ का सम्‍पादन किया। चरक संहिता आयुर्वेद का प्राचीनतम ग्रन्‍थ है, जिसमें रोगनिरोधक एवं रोगनाशक दवाओं का उल्लेख है। इसके साथ ही साथ इसमें सोना, चाँदी, लोहा, पारा आदि धातुओं से निर्मित भस्मों एवं उनके उपयोग की विधि बताई गयी है। कुछ लोग भ्रमवश आचार्य चरक को ‘चरक संहिता’ का रचनाकार बताते हैं, पर हकीकत यह है कि उन्‍होंने आचार्य अग्निवेश द्वारा रचित ‘अग्निवेश तन्त्र’ का सम्‍पादन करने के पश्‍चात उसमें कुछ स्थान तथा अध्याय जोड्कर उसे नया रूप प्रदान किया। ‘अग्निवेश तंत्र’ का यह संशोधित एवं परिवर्धित संस्‍करण ही बाद में ‘चरक संहिता’ के नाम से जाना गया।
भारतीय संस्‍कृति में ब्रह्मा को सृष्टि का रचयिता माना गया है। कहा जाता है कि ब्रह्मा ने मनुष्‍यों को पैदा किया। जब मनुष्‍य पैदा हुए, तो उनके साथ भाँति-भाँति के रोग भी उत्‍पन्‍न हुए। उन रोगों से निपटने के लिए ब्रह्मा ने आयुर्वेद का ज्ञान सर्वप्रथम प्रजापित को दिया। प्रजापति से यह ज्ञान अश्विनीकुमारों के पास पहुँचा। वैदिक साहित्‍य में अश्विनी कुमारों के चमत्‍कारिक उपचार की अनेक कथाएँ पढ़ने को मिलती हैं। अश्विनीकुमारों की विद्या से अभिभूत होकर देवराज इन्‍द्र ने आयुर्वेद का ज्ञान प्राप्‍त किया।
‘चरक संहिता’ के अनुसार एक बार धरती पर अनेक महामारियों का प्रकोप हुआ। इससे चिंतित होकर तमाम ऋषियों ने हिमालय की तराई में एक बैठक बुलाई। इस बैठक में असित, अगस्त्य, अंगिरा, आस्वराथ्य, आश्वलायन, आत्रेय, कश्यप, कपिंजल, कुशिक, कंकायण, कैकशेय, जमदाग्नि, वसिष्ठ, भृगु, आत्रेय, गौतम, सांख्य, पुलत्स्य, नारद, वामदेव, मार्कण्डेय, पारीक्षी, भारद्वाज, मैत्रेय, विश्वामित्र, भार्गव च्वयन अभिजित, गार्ग्य, शाण्डिल्य, कौन्दिन्य, वार्क्षी, देवल, मैम्तायानी, वैखानसगण, गालव, वैजवापी, बादरायण, बडिश, शरलोमा, काप्य, कात्यायन, धौम्य, मारीचि, काश्यप, शर्कराक्ष, हिरण्याक्ष, लौगाक्षी, पैन्गी, शौनक, शाकुनेय, संक्रित्य एवं वालखिल्यगण आदि ऋषियों ने भाग लिया। बैठक में सर्वसम्‍मति से भारद्वाज को अगुआ चुना गया और बीमारियों से मुक्ति पाने के लिए उन्‍हें इन्‍द्र के पास भेजा गया। इन्‍द्र ने आयुर्वेद का समस्‍त ज्ञान ऋषि भारद्वाज को दिया। बाद में भारद्वाज ने अपने शिष्‍य आत्रेय-पुनर्वसु को इस महत्‍वपूर्ण ज्ञान से परिचित कराया।
आत्रेय-पुनर्वसु के छ: शिष्‍य थे :- अग्निवेश, भेल, जतूकर्ण, पराशर, हारीत और क्षारपाणि। बाद में इन शिष्‍यों ने अपनी-अपनी प्रतिभानुसार आयुर्वेद ग्रन्‍थों की रचना की। इनमें से ज्‍यादातर ने आत्रेय के ज्ञान को ही संग्रहीत किया और उनमें थोड़ा-बहुत परिमार्जन किया। आत्रेय के इन तमाम शिष्‍यों में अग्निवेश विशेष प्रतिभाशाली थे। उनके द्वारा संग्रहीत ग्रन्‍थ ही कालांतर में ‘चरक संहिता’ के नाम से जाना गया। चूँकि चरक संहिता के रचनाकार अग्निवेश थे, इसलिए उसे ‘अग्निवेश संहिता’ के नाम से भी जाना जाता है।
चरक संहिता का संगठन :: चरक संहिता की रचना संस्‍कृत भाषा में हुई है। यह गद्य और पद्य में लिखी गयी है। इसे आठ स्‍थानों (भागों) और 120 अध्‍यायों में विभाजित किया गया है। चरक संहिता के आठ स्‍थान निम्‍नानुसार हैं:-
(1). सूत्रस्‍थान: इस भाग में औषधि विज्ञान, आहार, पथ्‍यापथ्‍य, विशेष रोग और शारीरिक तथा मानसिक रोगों की चिकित्‍सा का वर्णन किया गया है।
(2). निदानस्‍थान: आयुर्वेद पद्धति में रोगों का कारण पता करने की प्रक्रिया को निदान कहा जाता है। इस खण्‍ड में प्रमुख रोगों एवं उनके उपचार की जानकारी प्रदान की गयी है।
(3). विमानस्‍थान: इस अध्‍याय में भोजन एवं शरीर के सम्‍बंध को दर्शाया गया है तथा स्‍वास्‍थ्‍यवर्द्धक भोजन के बारे में जानकारी प्रदान की गयी है।
(4). शरीरस्‍थान: इस खण्‍ड में मानव शरीर की रचना का विस्‍तार से परिचय दिया गया है। गर्भ में बालक के जन्‍म लेने तथा उसके विकास की प्रक्रिया को भी इस खण्‍ड में वर्णित किया गया है। 
(5). इंद्रियस्‍थान: यह खण्‍ड मूल रूप में रोगों की प्रकृति एवं उसके उपचार पर केन्द्रित है। 
(6). चिकित्‍सास्‍थान: इस प्रकरण में कुछ महत्‍वपूर्ण रोगों का वर्णन है। उन रोगों की पहचान कैसे की जाए तथा उनके उपचार की महत्‍वपूर्ण विधियाँ कौन सी हैं, इसकी जानकारी भी प्रदान की गयी है।
(7 व 8). साधारण बीमारियाँ: ये अपेक्षाकृत छोटे अध्‍याय हैं, जिनमें साधारण बीमारियों के बारे में बताया गया है।
आनुवंशिकी (जेनेटिक्‍स): बच्‍चों में आनुवांशिक दोष जैसे अंधापन, लंगड़ापन, शारीरिक विकृति आदि उनके माता-पिता के किसी अभाव के कारण नहीं, बल्कि उनके शुक्राणु और अण्‍डाणु के कारण होते हैं।
मनुष्‍य के शरीर में दाँतों सहित कुल हड्डियों की संख्‍या 360 बताई है। हृदय को शरीर का नियंत्रण केन्‍द्र माना है। हृदय शरीर से 13 मुख्‍य धमनियों द्वारा जुड़ा रहता है। शरीर में इसके अतिरिक्‍त भी सैकड़ों छोटी-बड़ी धमनियाँ होती हैं, जो ऊतकों तक भोजन का रस पहुँचाती हैं तथा मल व व्‍यर्थ पदार्थों को शरीर के बाहर निकालने का कार्य करती हैं।
Brahma Ji evolved the science of medicine-surgery with the process of evolution. Very comprehensive and detailed knowledge pertaining to human body, child formation, growth, development, diseases and cure has been illustrated in Purans. Use of herbs for longevity has been described at length. Chapters on Ayurved of these blogs contain useful knowledge. It has now spread all over the world. No scientific studies are available either in support or to disapprove it. How ever it is still in use in India almost in every nook and corner. A number of Allopathic medicines are observed to have the basic components of Ayurvedic medicines.
Charak is a term for a wandering recluse-ascetic. 
The extant text has eight Sthan (sections), totalling 120 chapters. These sections are:
Sutr (General principals): 30 chapters deal with Healthy living, collection of drugs and their uses, remedies, diet and duties of a physician.
Nidan (Pathology): 8 chapters discuss the pathology-determination of eight chief diseases.
Viman (Specific determination): 8 chapters contain pathology, various tools of diagnostics & medical studies and conduct.
Sharir (Anatomy): 8 chapters describe embryology & anatomy of a human body.
Indriy (Sensorial prognosis): 12 chapters elaborate on diagnosis & prognosis of disease on the basis of senses.
Chikitsa (Therapeutics): 30 chapters deal with special therapy.
Kalp (Pharmaceutics and toxicology): 12 chapters describe usage and preparation of medicine.
Siddhi (Success in treatment): 12 chapters describe general principles of Panch Karm.
Seventeen chapters of Chikitsa  Sthan, complete Kalp Sthan and Siddhi Sthan were added later.The text starts with Sutr Sthan which deals with fundamentals and basic principles of Ayurved practice. 
Unique scientific contributions credited to the Charak Sanhita include:
A rational approach to the causation and cure of disease, 920. introduction of objective methods of clinical examination
Direct observation is the most remarkable feature of Ayur Ved (आयुर्वेद), though at times it is mixed up with metaphysics. The Sanhita emphasises that of all types of evidence the most dependable ones are those that are directly observed by the eyes.
Successful medical treatment crucially depends on four factors: (1). The physician, (2). Substances (drugs or diets), (3). Nurse and (4). Patient. 
The qualifications of physician are: clear grasp of the theoretical content of the science, a wide range of experience, practical skill and cleanliness; qualities of drugs or substances: abundance, applicability, multiple use and richness in efficacy; 
Qualifications of the nursing attendant are: knowledge of nursing techniques, practical skill, attachment for the patient and cleanliness.
Essential qualifications of the patients are: good memory, obedience to the instructions of the doctors, courage and ability to describe the symptoms.
Charak (Vol I, Section xv) states: "These men should be, of good character & behaviour, distinguished for purity, possessed of cleverness and skill, imbued with kindness, skilled in every service a patient may require, competent to cook food, skilled in bathing and washing the patient, rubbing and massaging the limbs, lifting and assisting him to walk about, well skilled in making and cleansing of beds, readying the patient and skilful in waiting upon one that is ailing and never unwilling to do anything that may be ordered."
Charak Sanhita dedicates Chapters 5, 6, 25, 26 and 27 to Ahar Tattv (dietetics-food), stating that wholesome diet is essential for good health and to prevent diseases, while unwholesome food is an important cause of diseases. It suggests that foods are source of heat, nutritive value as well as physiological substances that act like drugs inside human body. Furthermore, along with medicine, Charak Sanhita in Chapters 26 and 27, states that proper nutrition is essential for expedient recovery from sickness or surgery.
Ayurved has been described as the science of eight components-organs (aṣhṭang अष्टांग). 
Kaya Chikitsa (General medicine): Cure of diseases affecting the body.
Kaumar-Bharty and Bal Rog: Treatment of children.
Shaly Tantr: Surgical techniques.
Salaky-Tantr (Ophthalmology): Cure of diseases of the teeth, eye, nose or ear etc.
Bhut-Vidya: It deals with the causes, which are directly not visible and not explained directly from tri-dosh (Pitt, Cough and Vayu), pertaining to micro-organisms or spirits-ghosts.
Agad-Tantr: Gad means Poison, doctrine of antidotes.
Rasayan-Tantr (Geriatrics, Anti Ageings): Doctrine of Rasayan, Rejuvenation.
Vajikaran Tantra (Aphrodisiacs): Deals with healthy and desired progeny.
Ayurved has taken the approach of enumerating bodily substances in the framework of the five classical elements Panch Tattv, Panch Maha Bhoot  viz. earth, water, fire, air and ether. Moreover, Ayurveda name seven basic tissues (dhatu). They are plasma (ras), blood (rakt), muscles (-mams), fat (meda), bone (asthi), marrow (majja), and semen (shukr, veery).
Panch Maha Bhoot: Ayurveda states that a balance of the three elemental substances, the Dosh, equals health, while imbalance equals disease. There are three dosh: Vat, Pitt and Kaph. One Ayurvedic theory states that each human possesses a unique combination of these dosh-defects-imbalances which define this person's temperament and characteristics. Each person has a natural state, or natural combination of these three elements and should seek balance by modulating their behavior or environment. In this way they can increase or decrease the dosh they lack or have an abundance of them respectively. Another view present in the ancient literature states that dosh equality is identical to health, and that persons with imbalance of dosh are proportionately unhealthy, because they are not in their natural state of balance. Prakriti is one of the most important concepts in Ayurved.
Dosh: There are 20 qualities or characteristics (guṇ, गुण), which are inherent in all substances. They can be arranged in ten pairs of antonyms: heavy-light, cold-hot, unctuous-dry, dull-sharp, stable-mobile, soft-hard, non slimy-slimy, smooth-coarse, minute-gross, viscous-liquid.
Gun: Ensuring the proper functions of channels (shrot, source) that transport fluids is one part of Ayurvedic treatment, because a lack of healthy channels is thought to cause diseases. Practitioners treat patients with massages using oils and Swedan (fomentation) to open up these channels.
Diagnosis: Ayurved has 8 ways of diagnosis. They are Nadi (Pulse, नाड़ी), Mootr (Urine, मूत्र), Mal (Stool, मल), Jivha  (Tongue, जिव्हा), Shabd (Speech, शब्द), Sparsh (Touch, स्पर्श), Druk (Vision, द्रक), Akrati (Appearance, आकृति).
Treatment procedures: Ayurvedic practitioners approach diagnosis by using the five senses.Hearing is used to observe the condition of breathing and speech. The study of the lethal points or marm, (मर्म ) is of special importance.
Head massage is used to apply oils.
TREATMENT & HEALTH PROTECTION :: 
While two of the eight branches of classical Ayurveda deal with surgery (Shaly Chikitsa-Surgery, Salaky -Tantr), contemporary Ayurvedic theory tends to emphasise that building a healthy metabolic system, attaining good digestion and proper excretion lead to vitality. Ayurved also focuses on exercise, Yog, and meditation. To maintain health, a Satvic diet can be prescribed to the patient.
Concepts of Dincharya (-Daily Routine, दिनचर्या)  are followed in Ayurved. It emphasises the importance of natural cycles (-waking, sleeping, working, meditation etc.) for a healthy living. Hygiene, too, is a central practice of Ayurvedic medicine. Hygienic living involves regular bathing, cleansing of teeth, skin care, and eye washing.
Ayurved stresses the use of plant-based medicines and treatments. Plant-based medicines are derived from roots, leaves, fruits, barks and seeds such as cardamom and cinnamon. Some animal products like milk, bones, and gallstones, may be used. In addition, fats are used both for consumption and for external use. Minerals, including sulphur, arsenic, lead, copper sulphate, gold, silver etc. are also consumed as prescribed.This practice of adding minerals to herbal medicine is known as Ras Shastr (रस शास्त्र, रसायन). 
A variety of alcoholic beverages known as Mady (मद्य, अर्क, आसव, काढ़ा) are used in Ayurved. It enhances Pitt dosh and mitigates Vat and Kaph dosh. They are grouped by the raw material and fermentation process and classified as: sugar based, fruit based, cereal based, cereal base with herbs, fermentation of vinegar and tonic wines. Mady are used for various purposes including to cause purgation, improve digestion and taste, to create dryness and to produce looseness of joints. Ayurved texts describe it as non-viscid, quick in action, enters into minute pores of the body and cleaning them, spreads quickly.
Purified opium the dried latex from the plant capsule is used in eight Ayurvedic preparation.It balances Vat and Kaph Dosh and enhance Pitt Dosh. Used for treatment of certain conditions of diarrhea and dysentery and also to increase the sexual and muscular powers and produce stupefaction of brain. But, sedative and pain-relieving properties of opium on the human organ was not considered for Ayurvedic treatment purposes. The use of Opium is not found in the ancient Ayurved texts. The therapeutic usage of opium is first mentioned in Sarngadhar Sanhita, as an ingredient of aphrodisiac to delay seminal ejaculation.
Bhaisajya Ratnavali, suggests the use of opium along with camphor for the treatment of acute Gastro-enteritis. In this drug, the respiratory depressant action of Opium was counteracted by the respiratory stimulant property of Camphor. Later books have included the narcotic property for use as analgesic pain reliever.
Cannabis Indica, a plant of Indian origin is use as medicine is first mentioned in Sarngadhara Sanhita, for the treatment of diarrhea. Bhaisajya Ratnavali it has been described as an aphrodisiac.
Both oil and tar were used to stop bleeding. Traumatic bleeding was said to be stopped by four different methods: ligation of the blood vessel; cauterisation by heat; using different herbal or animal preparations locally which could facilitate clotting; and different medical preparations which could constrict the bleeding or oozing vessels. Various oils could be used in a number of ways, including regular consumption as a part of food, anointing, smearing, head massage, prescribed application to affected areas and oil pulling. Also, liquids may be poured on the patient's forehead, a technique which is called Shirodhara (शिरोधारा).
CATARACT: Cataract in human eye–magnified view seen on examination with a slit lamp. Cataract surgery is mentioned in the Sushrut Sanhita, as performed with a special tool called the Jaba Mukhi Salaka, a curved needle used to loosen the obstructing phlegm and push it out of the field of vision. The eye would later be soaked with warm butter and then bandaged.
Panch Karm: Practice of the cleansing, known as Panch Karm, (पंचकर्म‌) is a therapeutic way of eliminating toxic elements from the body. It includes Vaman, Virechan, Basti, Nasy and Rakt Mokshan. Panch Karm is preceded by Poorv Karm (Preparatory Step) and is followed by Pashchat Karm and Peyadi Karm.
SUSHRUT SANHITA :: It has 184 chapters, listed 1120 diseases 700 medicinal plants, 64 preparations, from mineral sources and 57 preparations from animal origin. There is evidence to prove that surgical operations were carried out successfully. Anaesthesia was in use and orthopaedic surgery was also conduced with ease, in  ancient India much-much before 5000 years.

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